Twenty characteristics of subsistence farming are:
- Little or no capital requirement
- Labor requirement
- Provision of food
- Low income and financial status
- Low productivity and efficiency
1- Little or no capital requirement
Subsistence farming is the type of farming that has little or no startup cost. This is because it is a small scale system that involves production of food for the farmer, his family members and few individuals.
In this system of farming, the farmer can plant using the few resources available to him such as land, How, Cutlass, Rakes, Bucket, Water source etc.
2- Labor requirement
Are you looking for a system of farming on which the labor requirement is low?
If yes, then subsistence farming is right for you.
In this system of Agriculture, the farmer and his family members are the major workers on the farm.
3- Provision of food
Farmers who practice subsistence farming usually have good supplies from their farm to feed themselves and their family.
4- Low income and financial status
Farmers who practice subsistence farming are known to have low income or financial status because they do not farm for profit making but for their personal consumption.
5- Low productivity and efficiency
This is a characteristics of subsistence farming. Unlike the commercial type of farming, subsistence farming is done using traditional means which leads to low productivity and efficiency.
- Land spacing
- An independent type of farming
- High level of uncertainty
- Popular type of farming
6- Land spacing
In subsistence farming, you do not need a very large area of land unlike the commercial type of farming. You can practice subsistence farming using the available space at your backyard or in your neighborhood.
7- An independent type of farming
Most subsistence farmer do not have reasons to collaborate or partner with other farmers or businesses. They go through the whole farming process alone.
8- High level of uncertainty
Subsistence farming is characterised with a very high level of uncertainty because the processes are carried out using traditional or local methods.
9- Popular type of farming
Subsistence farming is a popular type of farming. It has been practiced for more than 2000 years by both the educated an uneducated individuals. It is popular because of a lot of factors such as low capital requirement, low land spacing, provision of food etc.
Subsistence farming is less stressful than the large scale type of farming. The farm production is a small scale one and requires less activities. Although, the stress will be better reduced if technological facilities are introduced.
- Cultural and social use
- Poor decision making
- Mixed cropping
- Fertilizer application
11- Cultural and social use
Many of the farmers practicing subsistence farming do this to get food for their cultural and social functions. They plant crops or animals that will be used at their cultural or social events. Crops such as Yam, Casava and vegetables can be planted.
12- Poor decision making
Subsistence farmers are known to make poor farming decisions which end up resulting to poor yield or underutilization of available resources. Decisions such as crops to plant, Animals to raise, crops for mixed cropping, etc.
There is little or no risk involved in subsistence farming because the farmer puts little or no financial investment into the Agricultural process.
14- Mixed cropping
This system of farming allows the growing of two or more crops on the same land. This will ensure maximum use of the land for optimum production. It also provides a form of protection.
15- Fertilizer application
In subsistence farming of crops, farmers usually go for Animal waste instead of fertilizer. They do this to avoid the cost of purchasing fertilizers.
- Waste of time and resources
- Little or no technological application
- Poor yield
- Still acquisition
Live stocks are raised by many subsistence farmer for food and also for protection on their farm.
17- Waste of time and resources
Many subsistence farmers have low or very low experience of Agriculture which results to wastage of time and resources on the farm. This will result to a frustrating experience.
18- Little or no technological application
This is a characteristics of subsistence farming. Subsistence farmers avoid the use of technological facilities because of the high cost to purchase them. The farmers go for traditional means to achieve their farming goals.
19- Poor yield
If subsistence farming is not properly done, it may result to poor yield from the farming process.
20- Skill acquisition
Subsistence farming is a skill that can be acquired. It is a skill in which the unemployed people in a community can be trained in to make them small scale food producers.
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